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HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN
|Use||Clinical Screening DNA test for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes|
|Processing Time||14 working days|
|Details||The majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers are associated with DNA mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, and it is estimated to be hereditary in 5%-10% of the cases|
What is hereditary breast cancer?
The majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers are associated with DNA mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, and it is estimated to be hereditary in 5%-10% of the cases
What is the function of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes?
The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes produce tumour suppression proteins. These proteins are important in ensuring the stability of the genetic material in the cell. If there is a mutation in one of these genes, the protein is not produced properly, and the cells have a higher probability of presenting genetic alterations that could lead to cancer.
Can I inherit mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes?
A mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes can be inherited either from the mother or from the father. If your parents carry a mutation in one of these two genes, you have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation.
Who should take this test?
- Women who have several family members with breast, ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer.
- Women with breast cancer diagnosed before being 50 years of age.
- Women with bilateral breast cancer.
- Women with multiple breast cancers.
- Men with breast cancer.
Positive – A positive result for this test indicates that the patient has inherited a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, and therefore she has a higher risk of suffering from breast and ovarian cancer. The risk in women carrying mutations increases between 3 and 7 times in comparison to women who do not have any mutation. However, it is important to note that a positive result does not always mean that the patient will develop cancer in 100% of the cases, neither it determine when she will suffer it.
Biological children of a person (male or female) who has a mutation in one of these two genes will have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation, independently of whether or not their parents end up developing cancer.
Negative – A negative result for this test means that the person does not have a pathogenic mutation in none of the two genes and therefore they will no transmit it to their offspring. This person will have the same risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer as anyone in the general population.
If the person who undergo the test has a positive familiar history that suggests the possibility of having a hereditary genetic mutation, but the complete genetic test has not identified any mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the family, a negative result is less clear. It is possible that they carry a mutation in another gene different to BRCA1 and BRCA2.
Sample type: 5ml peripheral blood in EDTA
PTC Laboratories Thailand only provides testing and does not provide any genetic counselling. The patient must seek the advice of a genetic counsellor to get guidance on reading and interpreting the report.