FAQS

Here we have tried to answer the most common and frequently asked questions that we get from our clients. If you have a question that isn’t answered here, feel free to leave us a comment or email us at thailand@ptclabs.com. We’re here to help you answer some of life’s most important questions.

Q: WHAT IS DNA? PART 2: HUMAN DNA & HOW IT IDENTIFIES US

A: From one person to the next, our DNA is almost identical. What makes us ‘unique’ at a genetic level is that our genes differ slightly from individual to individual. These variations in a person’s genes are called polymorphisms. In human Identification, we are interested in a specific type of polymorphism known as Short Tandem Repeats (STRs).

STRs are short sequences of 2-5 base-pairs that repeat themselves in a single locus. For example, at locus of gene D7S280, the repeat sequence is “GATA” and it may occur six times. In another individual, the repeat sequence may be seen 10 times. This alternative form of a gene is known as an allele and it is expressed as the number of times the repeat sequence occurs.

Continuing our example with gene D7S280, alleles of this gene are found on human chromosome 7 and have between 6-15 tandem repeats of the “GATA” sequence. An example of a sequence with 15 tandem repeats can be seen in the table below. Note that the table below shows the base sequence for only one chromosome. Because we have a pair of chromosomes, there will be another sequence generated for the other gene.

If the genes from both chromosomes have identical alleles (homozygous), the sequences will have an identical number of tandem repeats. Therefore, both alleles are expressed as a single number.
For example:
LOCUS                     ALLELES
D7S280                     15

If the genes from both chromosomes are different alleles (heterozygous), the sequences will have different tandem repeats. Therefore, the alleles will be expressed as two numbers.
For example:
LOCUS                     ALLELES
D7S280                     6       15

DNA Profiles

The FBI has developed a standard set of 13 STR loci to be used for human identification, known as CODIS STRs. At PTC Laboratories, we use up to 26 STR loci for testing, including all 13 CODIS STRs, to generate a DNA profile for every person tested. These loci have the highest degree of polymorphisms and are always used in forensic cases and relationship/paternity testing worldwide.

An example DNA profile in a DNA Profile report for a single individual would look like this:

An example of DNA profiles in a paternity test report would look like this:

FOR MORE IN OUR SERIES ABOUT HUMAN DNA & PATERNITY TEST REPORTS:
PART 1: Human DNA – The Scientific Basics
PART 2: Human DNA & How it Identifies Us
PART 3: Understanding a PTC Paternity Test Report
PART 4: How to Recognize a Fake Result or Report